According to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), there are 25.4 million refugees worldwide. Many live in camps where they lack access to energy services, some for many years. In these situations, the humanitarian response becomes a form of long-term development. Humanitarian organisations are committed to improving the living conditions in refugee camps. However, their financial and technical resources are limited. This panel will discuss the possibility of market-based approaches implemented by a variety of development partners, taking into account practical examples of successes. It will raise the question of how humanitarian organisations such as UNHCR can work through such alternative delivery models and how development and humanitarian sectors can learn from each other.